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COVER DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Étude pour Santiago el Grande, c. 1957-1964 Watercolor, gouache, pencil and charcoal on tracing paper laid on cardboard 21 3/8 x 15 3/4 in. 915331
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Everyone can agree that there was just one Salvador Dal í . To say that he was unique would be an understatement as it seems that the very word “unique” came into the language with Dal í in mind. He would agree with that assessment, as he l ived his entire l i fe doing al l he could to be certain no one thought he was anything but. Dal í had a vast series of seemingly unending bursts of energy and creativity. He was frenetic in al l he did, and he sought new areas to conquer each time he looked at anything. He was fasci- nated by almost everything. From the time most chi ldren learn to color with crayons, Dal í was painting with oi ls. Famously, he said, “At the age of six I wanted to be a cook. At seven I wanted to be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing ever since.” He quickly learned that teach- ers couldn’t provide him with what he desperately wanted: insight. He wanted the world but had to conquer it on his own. Dal í would focus on whatever came to his mind. That meant not only oi l painting, but watercolor and printmaking, landscapes and portraits, optical i l lusions and sculptures, Cubism and Renais- sance, jewelry and botany, rel igion and movies. He was Jul ius Caesar: veni , vidi , vici . He came, he saw, he conquered. The common thread to his uncommon l i fe was Dal í ’s devotion to Surreal ism. Even though he was eventual ly ex-communicated from the Surreal ist group, he maintained the underlying constructs of Surreal ism throughout his l i fe. He said, “The only di fference between me and the Surreal ists is that I am a Surreal ist.” It is important in trying to understand Dal í to know just what that meant. Surreal ism was founded in the aftermath of World War I. With nations col lapsing, the world in ruins physical ly and f inancial ly, and the population utterly upended in as many ways as can be imagined, a group of people sought a di fferent mode of operation that would lead in a vastly di f- ferent direction. They reasoned that i f rational ity created the mess they l ived in, then irrational ity would be the antidote. Rational ity was never part of Dal í ’s equation. What was unique to him was his “Paranoiac-Critical Method”. He entered into a trance-l ike state where he would al low his mind to be released from anything real and let it go wherever it pleased. He would then awaken and preserve his dreams and visions in art. His hero was Sigmund Freud, who postulated that humans repress truth in order to operate in society—and to be accepted by others. Casting off the shackles that bound his mind created a freedom otherwise unattainable. Galerie Michael once again celebrates Salvador Dalí and his many accompl ishments with a very wide-ranging selection of his artworks. There is something here for everyone, and our of- ferings range across his creative oeuvre and across the affordabi l ity spectrum. Please take a few moments to explore Salvador Dal í and agree with us that there is but one word that perfectly describes this man: unique.
Dante Alighieri took more than twelve years to complete his epic, 14,233-line poem, The Divine Comedy , finished one year before he died in 1321. It was not only the pinnacle of his career and life, but also of Italian literature, arguably to this day. The poem is broken into three equal parts: Inferno [ Hell ], Purgatorio [ Purgatory ], and Paradiso ( Paradise/Heaven .) Each part is in turn divided into 33 parts (canti,) and with the introduction, the total reaches 100. The narrative is largely based on the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas’s tracking the life of a soul as it moves from the earthly and sin-filled realm through a penitent life to the ultimate reward, Heaven. Hell was formed by a cataclysmic eviction of the archangel, Lucifer, when he revolted against God. The result was a funnel-like cylinder that reached the center of the Earth. The im- pact through the Earth resulted in the creation of a mountain, Purgatory. Atop Purgatory is the Garden of Eden. There exists a roadway that passes through all levels of Purgatory and Hell along the way. The concept was that humans all live in sin, to one extent or another, and each would be sentenced to Hell, except for their ability to make recompense through acts of righ- teousness that offset their sins. The worst sinners would find themselves in the deepest level of Hell, while the most pious Christians would rise to sit at the highest level of Heaven, alongside God. In the 1950s, Salvador Dalí was commissioned by the Italian government to create a series of 101 watercolor paintings to accompany Dante’s masterpiece. The series was to serve as a cel- ebration of Dante’s timeless text, nearly 700 years after the author’s birth. Opposition to Dalí’s involvement in the project quickly arose, likely on account of his nationality (not Italian) and his profoundly impious, publicity-driven life. It was decided that Dalí (who was already immersed in the creative process) would not have a public viewing of his work as had been promised. Several years later, publisher Joseph Forêt partnered with the master artist and purchased all copyrights to the publish The Divine Comedy ( La Divine Comédie ). Thus began the remarkable success story of the series. In 1959, production began on The Divine Comedy, which took near- ly 4 years to complete. 3,500 separate blocks were carved to produce the woodblock prints in this series, after the 101 watercolor paintings. These works visually narrate the most compelling elements in Dante’s astounding work by navigating Dante’s subjects through a spectrum of soft, sensuous textures and complex symbolism. Considered by many to represent the height of Dalí’s creative genius, The Divine Comedy se- ries begins with the start of Dante’s own journey—a trip Dante refers to as “The Comedy.” While illustrating each realm, Dalí followed his creative talent, as exemplified by the odd and eerie beauty that exists within each piece. Nowhere is Dalí’s genius more evident than in his The Divine Comedy, through which he invites viewers to levels of Dante’s writing that capture what words cannot. DANTE & DALÍ: THE DIVINE COMEDY
Pages 5-31 EACH: DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Dante Alighieri, La Divine Comédie, 1959-1963 Color woodcut on BFK Rives paper Signed in pencil
From the extraordinary series, “La Divine Comédie” by Dante Alighieri, with art by Salvador Dalí. French language edition. Number 2 of 15 examples on Rives vellum paper, comprising one inked copper plate, a series of the engravings, a series of color woodcut illustrations, and a decomposition of the colors in a woodcut illustration. Translated by Julien Brizeux, Paris. Printed by Jacquet and Daragnes, Paris. Published by Jean Estrade, Editions d’art Les Heures Claires, Paris.
Field pgs. 194-200 12 15/16 x 10 3/8 in. Framed dimensions: 19 ¾ x 17 in.
The Divine Comedy: Hell Dante structures his Hell in a series of layers, one deeper than the next. There are nine circles, each concen- tric, thus forming a funnel shape that narrows with depth. At the bottom, Satan is held in an eternal prison. The circles from highest (least painful) to lowest (most painful) are: Limbo, Lust, Gluttony, Greed, Wrath, Heresy, Violence, Fraud and Treachery. At the very bottom is the center of Hell, where Satan is bound. The Divine Comedy opens in the year 1300, where the protagonist, Dante Alighieri, finds himself hopelessly lost in a forest, without a clue of how he lost his way. Disoriented by the darkness that fills the woods, Dan- te is attracted to a ray of sunshine he sees shine down on a mountain above him. Comforted by the sun’s implied protection from the lurking shadows, the man seeks the light but is overcome by a lion, leopard, and wolf while en route. In a hasty attempt to preserve his own life, Dante retreats back to the forest where he stumbles upon the ghost of Virgil. The Roman poet suggests that he will serve as Dante’s guide to the top of the mountain—but first they must travel a path through Hell, Purgatory and finally Heaven. Dante accepts the journey and Virgil leads him to the gates of hell, where he notices a haunting inscription that reads, “abandon all hope, you who enter here.” Salvador Dalí opens his 100-work illustrative journey through Dante’s Divine Comedy where Dante did, at the very beginning. As the trip commences, Dante finds himself alongside the straight and narrow pathway through isolation and desolation. Catholic theology teaches that everyone will stray from the path leading to Heaven, no matter how clearly it is shown. The goal is clear, but the pathway is not. His success is anything but certain and the stakes are of the highest order—his eternal life in either Heaven or Hell.
L’Enfer, Canto 6, Cerbère 915755.06.01
L’Enfer, Canto 7, Les avares et les prodigues 915755.07.01
L’Enfer, Canto 13, Le fôret des suicidés 915755.13.01
L’Enfer, Canto 14, Les blasphemateurs 915755.14.01
L’Enfer, Canto 17, Les usuriers 915755.17.01
L’Enfer, Canto 20, Devins et sorciers 915755.20.01
L’Enfer, Canto 21, Le diable noir 915755.21.01
L’Enfer, Canto 23, Le supplice des hypocrites 915755.23.01
L’Enfer, Canto 27, Un diable logicien 915755.27.01
The Divine Comedy: Purgatory Purgatory is the middle portion that exists between Inferno (Hell) and Paradise (Heaven), located on a moun- tain somewhere in the Earth’s Southern Hemisphere. At the top of the Mountain of Purgatory is the physical manifestation of Heaven on Earth, The Garden of Eden. The function of Purgatory is to cleanse sinners in preparation for their ascent into eternal Heaven. Only when they have sufficiently atoned for their sins do they qualify to move to Heaven. There are seven levels or “terraces” of Purgatory, which correspond with the Biblical Seven Deadly Sins: Pride, Envy, Wrath, Sloth, Greed/Avarice, Gluttony and Lust. People are assigned seven “P”s (presumably due to the Italian word for sin, “peccato”) on their foreheads as they enter Purgatory, and must have each one erased prior to being accepted into Heaven. For each sin, there is an antidote. The greater the degree of sin that the person engaged in, the greater the degree of cleansing that must take place. Dante is accompanied by his guide Virgil for most of his journey through Purgatory, though Beatrice takes over toward the end.
Canto 20 addresses the subject of Avarice et Prodigalité [Greed and Prodigality]. “Prodigal” refers to waste- fulness, extravagance and being a spendthrift.
To Dalí, leaders who appear to be upright in their beliefs and actions are hiding their transgressions. There are two partial faces in his image. The one on the left shows a person who appears to be poor and humble. Yet a closer examination shows that the wings of an angel are just part of an illusion and makes up a part of a false face. Similarly, the other face is blank, showing substance only by way of a mask. Dante did not per- ceive avarice and greed to be horrible sins, rather a lack of love, as can be seen by his placement of these sinners well up the mountain of Purgatory. Virgil points the way of the path heading to Paradise.
Le Purgatoire, Canto 20, Avarice et Prodigalité 915756.20.01
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Dante Alighieri, La Divine Comédie: Le Purgatoire, Canto 18, La quatrième corniche, 1959-1963 Color woodcut on BFK Rives paper Signed in pencil From the extraordinary series, “La Divine Comédie” by Dante Alighieri, with art by Salvador Dalí. French language edition. Number 2 of 15 examples on Rives vellum paper, comprising one inked copper plate, a series of the engravings, a series of color woodcut illustrations, and a decomposition of the colors in a woodcut illustration. Translated by Julien Brizeux, Paris. Printed by Jacquet and Daragnes, Paris. Pub- lished by Jean Estrade, Editions d’art Les Heures Claires, Paris. Field pg. 195 12 15/16 x 10 3/8 in. Framed dimensions: 19 3/4 x 17 in. 915756.18.02 The majority of this canto is devoted to a discussion of love. Toward the end, Dante condenses the entire quatrième corniche section [fourth ledge] of Purgatory into a brief discussion. This sector is for the “slothful” sinners. In modern English this would typically mean those who are inactive and therefore accomplish little. In the older languages it referred to people who spiritually showed no zeal by carrying a laissez-faire attitude of allowing whatever will happen to happen. In a modern context, this disguises itself as tolerance of impious behaviors or attitudes. As with all things in Purgatory, there is an antidote for each sin. In the case of Sloth, the penitents had to overcome their malaise with zeal. The less spiritual energy they showed in life, the greater the zeal they had to demonstrate to extricate themselves from Purgatory. Dalí shows a kaleidoscope-like whirlwind that envelopes people and beings into a massive show of ac- tion where it is impossible to distinguish between the intertwined participants.
Le Purgatoire, Canto 23, La gourmandise 915756.23.01
Le Purgatoire, Canto 28, La divine fôret 915756.28.01
The Divine Comedy: Paradise The third part of Dante’s triad is Paradise, or Heaven. Heaven is, like the other sections, divided into layers. Souls are assigned to their layer according to the level of piety they exhibited in their earthly lives. Rather than being structured in true layers, Heaven is organized in accordance with the solar system and the universe be- yond. The lowest layer of Heaven is the Moon, followed by Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Fixed Stars, Primum Mobile (the last part of the physical universe) and finally The Empyrean, where only the top-tier of devout souls can commune directly with God. Dante assigns figures to a sector of Heaven. These include people from the Bible, from his native Florence, and others with whom he is acquainted. Dante begins his journey through Paradise on the Wednesday fol- lowing Easter Sunday and wraps up on the evening of the following day, meaning that the entire journey took exactly one week. Cacciaguida speaks to Dante as any grandfatherly figure would. He tries to provide guidance for the rest of Dante’s life by letting him know that pride is a family trait, and in order to avoid additional travails in Purgatory, he should work to overcome that sinful trait. He goes on to assess Florentine society during his time compared with Dante’s. As is typical with older versus younger generational viewpoints, the Florence of old was vastly better than the present. Dalí shows Dante and Beatrice looking up into the heavens as Dante is deep in conversation with Cacciagu- ida, under the bright cross that showcases the key requirement for admission to this sphere of Paradise on Mars—warriors who fought for Christ during their physical lives. Canto 15’s highlight is the meeting that takes place between Dante and his great-great-grandfather, Cacciagu- ida. This made Dante euphoric, hence the title, Extase de Dante [Dante’s Ecstasy].
Le Paradis, Canto 15, Extase de Dante 915757.15.01
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Dante Alighieri, La Divine Comédie: Le Paradis, Canto 3, Le premier ciel, 1959-1963 Color woodcut on BFK Rives paper Signed in pencil From the extraordinary series, “La Divine Comédie” by Dante Alighieri, with art by Salvador Dalí. French language edition. Number 2 of 15 examples on Rives vellum paper, comprising one inked copper plate, a series of the engravings, a series of color woodcut illustrations, and a decomposition of the colors in a woodcut illustration. Translated by Julien Brizeux, Paris. Printed by Jacquet and Daragnes, Paris. Published by Jean Estrade, Editions d’art Les Heures Claires, Paris. Field pg. 199 12 15/16 x 10 3/8 in. Framed dimensions: 19 3/4 x 17 in. 915757.03.02 As Dante moves through the first parts of heaven, he is accompanied by Beatrice. In Canto 3, Le pre- mier ciel [The First Sky], the pair is on the moon, which is the first sphere of Dante’s Heaven. This lowest sphere houses souls who were righteous enough to get to Heaven, but could not attain a higher level because they did not complete their vows to God, through the Catholic church. Dante interacts with two women in this canto, Piccarda and Constance. Piccarda was related to Dante through marriage, and was forced by one of Dante’s real-life political enemies, Corso, to leave her convent in order to marry one of Corso’s political enforcers as a means of strengthening Corso’s power. Con- stance’s circumstances were similar in that she too was forced out of her convent in order to satisfy political purposes—in this case to marry Henry VI. She gave birth to the last Holy Roman Emperor of the Middle Ages, Frederick II. Dante addresses a key point in his Canto 3: are souls assigned to lower levels of Heaven envious of those who are higher? This question arose because these two women were forced out of their vows and did not do so of their own free wills. Beatrice answered by saying that envy is of the Earthly, human realm, and cannot occur in heaven. Every soul in Heaven is fully actualized and in perfect harmony with God. Dalí shows Dante alongside Beatrice in conversation with Piccarda, whom he knew well on Earth. She has levitated above them, radiating her relatively new status, having passed quickly through Purgatory.
Le Paradis, Canto 8, La plus grande beauté de Béatrice 915757.08.01
Le Paradis, Canto 11, Opposition 915757.11.01
Le Paradis, Canto 14, Apparition du Christ 915757.14.01
Le Paradis, Canto 16, Apparition de l’ancêtre 915757.16.01
Le Paradis, Canto 19, La langage de l’oiseau 915757.19.01
Le Paradis, Canto 21, L’échelle mystique 915757.21.01
There are a few works that are as instantly recognizable by almost everyone as Salvador Dalí masterpieces. Works with melting clocks or lobsters rise to the top of that list. Many others are only slightly less well-known, including Santiago El Grande [Santiago the Great] (1957), his amazing monumental treasure. While that work is forever locked in a Canadian museum, the study that led to it is not. Étude pour Santiago el Grande [Study for Santiago the Great] (c. 1957-1964) showcases just how Dalí developed the finished multi-faceted gem. During this especially pivotal period of the master artist’s career, Dalí delved deeply into his exploration of religious themes and the Old Masters. He also immersed himself in Western art history. Both the study and the finished product reflect the artist’s career-long experimentation with “optical art,” which he used to achieve unusual optical illusions. Shortly after the conception of this study, Dalí advanced to holography, making use of lenticular plastic to produce extraordinarily interactive and awe-inspiring illusions. Of course, all of Dalí’s art has a certain, unique power to dissect reality—namely through the use of surreal iconography. Étude pour Santiago el Grande is a striking representation of the multifaceted, dynamic nature not only of Dalí’s oeuvre, but also the man himself. The horse and rider command the central axis while springing trium- phantly from a shell that levitates above a desert landscape. The animated conquistador (a frequent element in some of Dalí’s most highly-coveted art) brandishes a shield and spear—a nod to the beloved Spanish bullfighting culture. A geometric pattern frames the horse and rider, which Dalí explained is representative of an atomic explosion bursting from the four petals of a stylized symbol of purity - a jasmine flower. Most strikingly, the brave conquistador raises his steed to the heavens which powerfully reinforces themes of piety and nationalism. The upward motion of the rearing horse symbolizes Christ’s, and thus mankind’s, ultimate ascension toward heaven. The religious official and praying person pictured in the desert landscape round out the composition’s religious iconography. Étude pour Santiago el Grande exists as a museum-quality mixture of hyper-realism and mystic allure that equally represents the very essence of the artist himself. It is a window that allows a penetrating glimpse into the soul of a surrealist. DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Étude pour Santiago el Grande, c. 1957-1964 Watercolor, gouache, pencil and charcoal on tracing paper laid on cardboard Signed lower left An exceptional example of a rare original work by Dalí. Accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Nicolas Descharnes and the late Robert Descharnes. 21 3/8 x 15 ¾ in. Framed dimensions: 36 ½ x 30 ½ in. 915331
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Salvador Dalí, Santiago El Grande, 1957 Oil on canvas
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 The Mythology: Judgment of Paris, 1960-64 Color etching and engraving on Arches paper Signed in pencil
Greek mythology speaks of a wedding banquet hosted by Zeus, where Eris, the goddess of discord, brought a golden apple to be awarded to the most beautiful attendee. Three goddesses laid claim to the prize: Hera, the goddess of women, marriage, family and childbirth; Aphrodite, the goddess of love, pas- sion and beauty; and Athena, the goddess of warfare and wisdom. The three approached Zeus to have him judge between them, but he did not want to become embroiled in a situation in which he could gain nothing, so he appointed a mortal who had shown himself to be impartial in previous dealings to judge in his stead. The person he chose was Paris, the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba. Paris set about judging the beauty of the three but determined that he could not come to a decision if the three were clothed, so they individually stood naked before him. Each in turn then offered bribes in exchange for a favorable outcome. Hera said that she would make him the king of Europe and Asia. Aph- rodite promised him the most beautiful human alive to be his wife and Athena said that she would share her knowledge of warfare in order to provide Paris with the ability to win any future battle. Ultimately, Paris chose Aphrodite as the most beautiful, in the process claiming his own prize, which turned out to be Helen of Sparta, who was the wife of the King of Sparta. This greatly angered the Greeks, who then set about to rescue Helen, who was in Troy with Paris. The Trojan War was the result. Dalí created a scene with the three goddesses standing before Paris, as he sits in judgment. He holds the golden apple aloft as he makes his decision known. His diminutive size, being a mere mortal, is far smaller than his goddess counterparts. By using the meaningful manifestation of chance, Dalí illustrated this series, The Mythology , by starting with an abstract smudge, created in a single motion, and devel- oped his theme from this sign of fate. From the rare and complete suite, “The Mythology,” comprising 16 original etchings and engravings, some with aquatint. Also signed and dated in the plate. Total tirage of 270 + proofs. Published by Pierre Argillet, Paris. Printed by Robbe, Paris. Field 63-3I 30 x 22 ¼ in. 914871
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 The Mythology: Medusa, 1960-64 Color etching and engraving on Arches paper Signed in pencil From the rare and complete suite, “The Mythology,” comprising 16 original etchings and engravings, some with aquatint. Also signed and dated in the plate. Total tirage of 270 + proofs. Published by Pierre Argillet, Paris. Printed by Robbe, Paris. Field 63-3D 22 ¼ x 30 in. 914866 The term “gorgon” derives from Greek mythology, where there were three creatures called gorgons – intensely frightening because they had venomous snakes for hair. The myth attributes the snakes to punishment by Athena, who was incensed by Me- dusa’s sexual encounter with Poseidon in Athena’s temple. Medusa’s most beautiful attribute had been her hair, and now it was her most horrifying trait. The three gorgons were sisters: Stheno, known as “the Mighty”; Euryale, known as “the Far Springer” and Medusa, “the Queen.” The first two were said to be immortal, but Medusa was mortal, as Perseus discovered when he beheaded her. It was only possible to kill her by using a shield provided by Athena—and then only by looking at a reflection of Medusa in that shield. Anyone who gazed on Medusa would instantly be turned to stone. The head retained and even increased its power, and eventually Athena took it in place of her shield. Dalí shows Medusa on her knees as she picks up a skull, her head of snakes flying in every direction, as Athena watches the spectacle unfold.
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Pages choisies de Don Quichotte de la Mancha: Madonna, 1956 Color lithograph with gold embellishment on BFK Rives paper
A rare trial proof from the series “Pages choisies de Don Quichotte de la Mancha,” comprising 12 original lithographs on stone, some with watercolor and collage. An unfolded proof with pinholes in the edges of the upper and lower margins, consistent with its status as a proof. Tirage of 233 plus proofs. Published by Joseph Foret, Paris, in 1957. Annotated verso by the publisher, “Le essai avec couronne et lumière or” (Trial/test with crown and light in gold). Another trial proof, in yet another color combination, is at the Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, FL. Accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Frank Hunter of the Salvador Dalí Archives, Ltd. Provenance: Joseph Foret, Paris; Estate of Joseph Foret, Paris; Albert Field, New York;
Estate of Albert Field, New York; By descent to the previous owner Field 57-1 E (variation); Michler & Löpsinger 1010 25 ¾ x 16 ¼ in. Framed dimensions: 41 ¾ x 31 ½ in. 915666
Pages choisies de Don Quichotte de la Mancha: Madonna, (1956) [Selected pages from Don Quixote of La Mancha: Madonna] is a unique work, both in terms of what it is and what it represents. Dalí’s Madonna (1956) depicts two figures: the Madonna on the right and the child at her side. Both figures are faceless, and the Madonna is shown cradling her baby as her drapery flies, whirling in the wind. This visually arresting image reveals Dalí’s range of expertise, as it is inspired by the method of “bulletism,” a uniquely Dalínian invention involving the use of an arquebus, a portable antique gun. The weapon was loaded with ink-filled capsules and then shot onto a medium. The spatter would then be incorporated into Dalí’s composition. This supremely innovative method became synonymous with Dalí’s work and remains a signature motif in his oeuvre. The incorporation of a Madonna and Child into the Don Quixote story is as mysterious as Dalí’s mind. It is suggested that it had to do with Dalí’s marriage to his love and muse, Gala. Dalí and Gala sought to have the Church sanctify their civil marriage. Gala had been married before in a branch of Catholicism and was therefore not free to marry again without a papal annulment. The couple’s campaign began in the early 1950s and continued until the pope granted their wish in 1958, thereby paving the way for a church wedding, which took place immediately thereafter. Dalí completed a number of ostensibly Christian-themed works as part of his crusade. Inserting a Madonna and Child into Don Quixote was no accident as the pope was on the verge of making a decision at that exact time.
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Faust: Chevalier à genou, 1969 Engraving on Arches paper
From the suite “Faust,” comprising 21 original engravings by ruby and diamond burins. With the artist’s blindstamp. With full margins. Published by Éditions Argillet, Paris. Printed by Robbe. Tirage of 731 plus proofs. Authenticated verso by Albert Field of the Salvador Dalí Archives, Ltd., 1998. Field 69-1K; Michler & Löpsinger 305 14 7/8 x 11 1/16 in. Framed dimensions: 26 ½ x 21 in. 913684
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Faust: Portrait de Marguerite, 1969 Engraving with hand-coloring in watercolor and gold leaf on Japon paper Signed and numbered “54/145” in pencil
From the suite “Faust,” comprising 21 original engravings by ruby and diamond burins. From the edition of 145, signed and numbered, without text. Total tirage of 731 plus proofs, on paper with embossed “Salvador Dalí”. With full margins. Published by Éditions Argillet, Paris. Printed by Robbe. Field 69-1 A; Michler & Löpsinger 298 15 1/8 x 11 ¼ in. Framed dimensions: 29 x 25 in. 915643
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 The Marquis de Sade: Misfortune’s Mistake, Marianne and the Chevalier, 1969 Color lithograph on Arches wove paper Signed and numbered “XXIX/XC” in pencil; signed and dated “1967” in the plate From the series of 25 color lithographs from original gouaches, “The Marquis de Sade.” Printed by Wolfensberger and published by Shorewood, New York. Total tirage of 301 plus proofs. Field 69-1D; Michler & Löpsinger 1235 25 ½ x 19 5/8 in. Framed dimensions: 35 ½ x 29 ¾ in. 915730
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Twelve Tribes of Israel: Frontispiece, 1972 Drypoint etching and color by stencil on paper Signed and numbered “XVIII/XXXV” in pencil ‘Salvador Dalí’. Tirage of 460 plus proofs. Field 72-6M; Michler & Löpsinger 618b 26 ½ x 19 ¾ in. Framed dimensions: 34 ¾ x 29 ½ in. 915731
Created for the portfolio published on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the founding of modern Israel. Published by Transworld Art, New York. Printed by Ateliers Rigal, Paris. Stamped copyright verso
While Dalí titled his suite Hommage à Albrecht Dürer , he really intended it to be a tribute not only to Dürer (1471–1528), but also to several of his contemporaries, including the Italians Tiziano “Titian” Vecelli (c. 1488–1576) and Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445–1510). Albrecht Dürer was one of the most esteemed Germans of the Renaissance. While it was his engraving skills that set him fully apart, his other artistic endeavors were also of the highest order. He was one of the inspirations for Rembrandt’s future mastery of etchings. Florentine Sandro Botticelli is best known for his paintings of mythological figures, though he was also prolific in his religious depictions. Titian was from Venice and was widely regarded as a mas- ter of many subjects, including portraits, landscape scenery, religious moments and mythology. All three were therefore highly adept at painting mythology-related subjects, which is what Dalí then set about weaving together into his homage suites. Almost half of the works Dalí painted were of Venus, who was the Roman equivalent of the earlier Greek goddess, Aphrodite. Venus was the goddess of beauty, desire, love, sex, fertility and prosperity. In art, the mythical Venus/Aphrodite is always shown as the perfect embodiment of a female, beginning millennia ago. That is one of the most fascinating views into how the notion of physical perfection has changed over vast periods of time, particularly because, due to her oversight of beauty, love and sex, she is typically depicted in some form of undress. HOMMAGE À ALBRECHT DÜRER
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Hommage à Albrecht Dürer: Le Printemps, 1971 Engraving with extensive hand-coloring in watercolor on Japon paper Signed and annotated ‘E.A.’ in pencil
A rare artist’s proof with full margins from the suite ‘Hommage à Albrecht Dürer’ (‘Suite Mythologique Nouvelle’) (‘Venus Series’), comprising 14 original engravings, some with watercolor. Aside from an edi- tion of 150 on Rives paper and an edition of 120 on Japon nacré paper. Published by Vision Nouvelle, Paris. Printed by Atelier Rigal, Paris. Inscribed by Denise Rigal in pencil verso, “épreuve faisant partie notre collection Rigal”. Field 71-8 G; Michler & Löpsinger 486 30 1/8 x 22 3/8 in. Framed dimensions: 42 x 32 ¾ in. 915655
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Hommage à Albrecht Dürer: Venus et l’Amour, 1971 Engraving with extensive hand-coloring in watercolor on Japon paper Signed and annotated ‘E.A.’ in pencil
A rare artist’s proof with full margins from the suite ‘Hommage à Albrecht Dürer’ (‘Suite Mythologique Nou- velle’) (‘Venus Series’), comprising 14 original engravings, some with watercolor. Aside from an edition of 150 on Rives paper and an edition of 120 on Japon nacré paper. Published by Vision Nouvelle, Paris. Printed by Atelier Rigal, Paris. Inscribed by Denise Rigal in pencil verso, “épreuve faisant partie notre collection Rigal”. Field 71-8 D; Michler & Löpsinger 483 30 1/8 x 22 1/8 in. Framed dimensions: 42 x 32 ¾ in. 915656 Albrecht Dürer’s Venus und Amor (1514) shows a clothed Venus alongside a young, male, nude, winged Cupid, who is escaping from a swarm of bees whose hive has been upended. The attacking bees rep- resent being stung and smitten by love. It is sometimes understood that Cupid was the son of Venus, through an adulterous coupling with the god of war, Mars. Dalí’s artwork, Hommage à Albrecht Dürer: Venus et l’Amour (1971), shows a nude and bejeweled Venus with her arms somewhat draped in a translucent shawl and her head festooned with an enormous, veiled headdress as she stands alongside a Cupid similar to Dürer’s. Rather than being attacked by bees, they are bathed in the warmth of the overhead sun. Soft watercoloring enhances the intricate lines and curves of this beautiful engraving, showcasing Dalí’s tribute to this ethereal scene.
HOMMAGE À LEONARDO
Leonardo da Vinci was, quite literally, “The Renaissance Man.” His thirst for understanding was unquenchable, and his scope of interests was seemingly boundless. Da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, scientist, engineer, mathematician, inventor, writer, anatomist, geologist, botanist, cartographer and musician. He became one of the most noteworthy peo- ple in all of human history and his impact is still being studied and felt to this day. 450 years later, Salvador Dalí imagined himself to be better and more skilled than his teach- ers, and he likely was. Dalí’s dynamic, multi-faceted personality compelled him to undertake a plethora of creative projects—many of which diverged from artistic inquiry and instead centered around invention and innovation. Unsurprisingly, the achievements of da Vinci in- fluenced Dalí very early on, as the artist was already intrinsically capable of working with a variety of media by the time he entered his teenage years. In 1975, Dalí both paid tribute to da Vinci and worked to tightly bind their lives together. Dalí’s Hommage à Leonardo da Vinci , a set of 12 etchings with extensive coloring, survive as a sincere and very personal tribute to his idol. For Dalí, had da Vinci had the benefit of Dalí’s surrealistic genius, this is what he would have done. He wanted to update da Vinci by 500 years—and more importantly, make da Vinci more like Dalí. When taken as a group, one is struck by a few things: Dalí had a boundless imagination that he worked diligently to explore and tap; Dalí had great skill in interpreting his dreams; and Dalí required that his legacy would be forever tied to that greatest of humans, Leonardo da Vinci.
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Hommage à Leonardo da Vinci: La linotype, 1975 Drypoint with etching and pochoir in colors on Arches paper Signed and numbered “97/450” in pencil
From the suite “Hommage à Leonardo da Vinci,” comprising 12 drypoints with etching and extensive col- oring. Each featuring Dalí’s interpretations and tribute to da Vinci’s innovations. From the edition of 450, signed and numbered, on Arches paper. Total tirage of 530. Published by Editions de Francony/Editions Graphiques Internationales. Printed by Atelier Rigals, Paris. With full margins. Field 75-8E; Michler & Löpsinger 815 29 ¾ x 21 ¼ in. 915627
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Hommage à Leonardo da Vinci: L’aéroplane, 1975 Drypoint with etching and pochoir in colors on Arches paper Signed and numbered “97/450” in pencil
Humans have always marveled at the ability of birds to fly and dreamt of doing so themselves. More than five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci set about to invent airplanes and helicopters in a stupendous vision of technological advancement. When the Wright brothers took flight in 1903, no one could have imagined that a century later, airlines would fly to every corner of the globe. While telephones, telegraphs and electronics in general converted the world to a small virtual one, airplanes made the physical world very compact. Dalí shows a man flying behind a bird, literally riding on its coattails as great plumes of exhaust herald liftoff. He depicts the Wright Flyer, the plane used by Orville and Wilbur Wright, in a top-down plan view that da Vinci might recognize. The illustration was meant to show the moment da Vinci’s vision was actually realized, as Dalí’s tribute to “The Renaissance Man.” From the suite “Hommage à Leonardo da Vinci,” comprising 12 drypoints with etching and extensive coloring. Each featuring Dalí’s interpretations and tribute to da Vinci’s innovations. From the edition of 450, signed and numbered, on Arches paper. Total tirage of 530. Published by Editions de Francony/Editions Graphiques Internationales. Printed by Atelier Ri- gals, Paris. With full margins. Field 75-8A; Michler & Löpsinger 810 22 ¼ x 29 ¾ in. 915623
The invention of a harvesting combine was instrumental in moving populations off the farms and into ever-industrializing cities that were in need of workers on a massive scale. The need for hordes of people to harvest a field through the use of scythes, rakes and pitchforks was suddenly reduced to a handful of equipment operators who could simultaneously reap, thresh, gather and win- now—hence the term “combine.” Dalí pictures massive golden stalks of wheat blowing in the winds of progress. Two people in silhouette are praying in gratitude for the harvest – a very direct nod to the Jean-François Millet oil painting, L’Angélus (1857-1859). A golden combine sits in the cor- ner, ready to harvest. It is shown as an old-fashioned model that required horses or a tractor to function, rather than the enormous self-propelled models that were developed post World War II. From the suite “Hommage à Leonardo da Vinci,” comprising 12 drypoints with etching and extensive coloring. Each featuring Dalí’s interpretations and tribute to da Vinci’s innovations. From the edition of 450, signed and numbered, on Arches paper. Total tirage of 530. Published by Editions de Francony/Editions Graphiques Internationales. Printed by Atelier Rigals, Paris. With full margins. Field 75-8J; Michler & Löpsinger 819 22 ¼ x 29 ¾ in. 915632 DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Hommage à Leonardo da Vinci: La moissonneuse, 1975 Drypoint with etching and pochoir in colors on Arches paper Signed and numbered “97/450” in pencil
LES CAPRICES DE GOYA
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746- 1828) was the last of the Old Masters artists, even perhaps the first of the Modern Masters. He shaped a career that was acceptable, though not overly noteworthy, until he tried his hand at social commentary and advocacy. His previous career of painting portraits for the royal court and nobles was successful, but after suffering a mental breakdown, he now found himself locked in a prison of his own mind and body. His works began to shift to the meaning of it all, and the understanding of the weaknesses of the human condition, both indi- vidually and societally. He became a master of political insight and commentary, often focus- ing his sharpest critiques at the Spanish estab- lishment—the upper crust and the clergy. His turning point artistically was an 80-work suite entitled, Los Caprichos (The Follies.) He focused his attention on certain themes, includ- ing the moral corruptions of the aristocracy,
clergy and even the general population on oc- casion. He also addressed witchcraft, sorcery and superstitions, including religious beliefs and teachings. It captured the travails of Spain in a single nightmarish dream. Just as Goya did, Salvador Dalí did not follow any rules of synchronization. Dalí was strident and passionate in his anti-Establishment fo- cus. While he did not necessarily have a men- tal breakdown, it could be argued that his en- tire life was a mental breakdown in the sense that he broke down every thought of normalcy. In Les Caprices de Goya , Dalí adapts Goya’s Los Caprichos to fit his own vision of Spanish culture. Here, Dalí transforms Goya’s suite into vibrant and dramatic surrealist interpre- tations. Mindful of preserving his predeces- sor’s artistic agency, Dalí builds on Goya’s work, gracefully melding their artistic mas- teries and forming one of the greatest collab- orations in the history of art.
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Les Caprices de Goya: Los relojes blandos, 1977 Color heliogravure over drypoint with hand-painting by the artist on Rives BFK paper Signed and annotated “Premier Etat-Couleur” (first colored state) in pencil An exceptionally rare color proof reworked and altered with drypoint and extensive hand-coloring. Before Dalí’s titles and plate numbers were engraved in the plates. From Goya’s “Los Caprichos” print series (circa 1799 edition). Before the edition of 200 plus 20 artist’s proofs. Edition published by Berggruen/Editions Graphiques Internationales, Paris. Field 77-3 (6); Michler & Löpsinger 922 17 ¼ x 12 ¼ in. Framed dimensions: 27 1/8 x 22 ¾ in. 915212
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Les Caprices de Goya: Qué ramo de bonitas cerezas!, 1977 Color heliogravure over drypoint with hand-painting by the artist on Rives BFK paper Signed and annotated “Premier Etat-Couleur” (first colored state) in pencil
Dalí’s Les Caprices de Goya: Que ramo de bonitas cerezas! [What a bowl of beautiful cherries] is based on Goya’s ¡Qué sacrificio! [What a sacrifice!], Plate 14 of Goya’s Los Caprichos. This image is another in Goya’s social commentary, once again deriding the sacrifice of a young and beautiful woman’s happiness in favor of money. In this case, the woman is betrothed to an old hunch- back. She turns away knowing there is nothing she can do, but resigned to what the immediate future holds for her. Her father is beaming because he will be relieved of his financial hardships. Her mother, in the background, does not object, while another woman hides her face in shame and embarrassment. Two captions are attributed to this work, and they clearly show Goya’s intent. The first is, “Vile interest obliges parents to sacrifice their young and pretty daughter by marrying her to an old hunchback, and there is no lack of priests to endorse such weddings.” The second on brings even greater clarity, when it declares, “As must be, the groom is not the most appealing, but he is rich, and an unfortunate girl’s freedom is the price to pay for rescuing a famished family.” Goya also holds the Catholic church responsible for its part in permitting, perhaps even encouraging, these marriages. The rich always have influence, and Goya feels that this level of control through money is unwarranted and unscrupulous. An exceptionally rare color proof reworked and altered with drypoint and extensive hand-coloring. Before Dalí’s titles and plate numbers were engraved in the plates. From Goya’s “Los Caprichos” print series (cir- ca 1799 edition). Before the edition of 200 plus 20 artist’s proofs. Edition published by Berggruen/Editions Graphiques Internationales, Paris. Field 77-3 (67); Michler & Löpsinger 861 17 ¼ x 12 ¼ in. 915209
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Les Caprices de Goya: Hasta Ensordecer, 1977 Color heliogravure over drypoint with hand-painting by the artist on Rives BFK paper Signed and annotated “Premier Etat-Couleur” (first colored state) in pencil
Les Caprices de Goya: Hasta Ensordecer [To Deafness], 1977 is based on Chitón [Hush], Plate 28 of Goya’s Los Caprichos . “Chitón” derives from the Spanish word for a shellfish, like a clam, that can close itself fully, thereby “clamming up”. When used in this sense, it means to keep one’s mouth firmly closed, thereby keeping a secret. Goya himself commented that the old woman was “an excellent woman to trust with a confidential message.” In his highlighting the foibles of Spanish society, Goya was unhappy with the constant need for people to gossip and spread rumors. Dalí not only colored Goya’s image, but he added a horse in a space that Goya unwittingly left open for the express purpose of imagining a horse’s head. An exceptionally rare color proof reworked and altered with drypoint and extensive hand-coloring. Before Dalí’s titles and plate numbers were engraved in the plates. From Goya’s “Los Caprichos” print series (cir- ca 1799 edition). Before the edition of 200 plus 20 artist’s proofs. Edition published by Berggruen/Editions Graphiques Internationales, Paris. Field 77-3 (53); Michler & Löpsinger 875 17 ¼ x 12 ¼ in. Framed dimensions: 27 1/8 x 22 ¾ in. 915211
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Les Caprices de Goya: Los incas peludos del atardecer, 1977 Color etching and aquatint on Rives paper Signed and annotated ‘E.A.’; signed and titled in the plate
From one of 20 E.A. portfolios of “Les Caprices de Goya” aside from the regular edition of 200. The portfolio contains 80 images. Published by Berggruen, Paris. This set has been authenticated by Frank Hunter of the Salvador Dalí Archives Ltd. Field 77-3 (13); Michler & Löpsinger 915 17 5/8 x 12 ¼ in. 909776
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Les Caprices de Goya: Ni menos ni más, 1977 Color etching and aquatint on Rives paper Signed and annotated ‘E.A.’ in pencil; signed and titled in the plate
From one of 20 E.A. portfolios of “Les Caprices de Goya” aside from the regular edition of 200. The portfolio contains 80 images. Published by Berggruen, Paris. This set has been authenticated by Frank Hunter of the Salvador Dalí Archives Ltd. Field 77-3 (41); Michler & Löpsinger 888 17 3/8 x 12 ¼ in. 909749
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Les Caprices de Goya: Subía las escaleras como si las bajara, 1977 Color etching and aquatint on Rives paper Signed and annotated ‘E.A.’ in pencil; signed and titled in the plate
From one of 20 E.A. portfolios of “Les Caprices de Goya” aside from the regular edition of 200. The portfolio contains 80 images. Published by Berggruen, Paris. This set has been authenticated by Frank Hunter of the Salvador Dalí Archives, Ltd. Field 77-3 (25); Michler & Löpsinger 903 17 3/8 x 12 ¼ in. Framed dimensions: 26 7/8 x 22 7/8 in. 909764
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Les Caprices de Goya: El horizonte, 1977 Color etching and aquatint on Rives paper Signed and annotated ‘E.A.’ in pencil; signed and titled in the plate
From one of 20 E.A. portfolios of “Les Caprices de Goya” aside from the regular edition of 200. The portfolio contains 80 images. Published by Berggruen, Paris. This set has been authenticated by Frank Hunter of the Salvador Dalí Archives Ltd. Field 77-3 (27); Michler & Löpsinger 900 17 5/8 x 12 ¼ in. 909761
TRISTAN AND ISEULT Transported to 6th century England, Tristan et Iseult , the tale of a famous medieval romance based on Celtic legend, begins. King Mark of Cornwall rules the lands of the region, and his nephew Tristan is by his side, filling the roll of a chivalrous and honorable knight. Tensions with Ireland are strained when the Irish King sends his champion to demand tribute. Tristan fights the Irish champion in single combat, settling this dispute, but is left with major injuries. Seeking a skilled and well renowned healer, Tristan, in disguise, is sent to enemy territory to find this famous healer who is none other than the Irish king’s daughter, Iseult. Tristan is healed by the hands of the bewitching princess, and from this point on, Tristan and Iseult are insnared in their tragic story. Relaying his praise of Iseult to his uncle, King Mark sets his eyes upon marrying her. Tristan agrees to return to Ireland to ask the princess’s hand for marriage on behalf of his uncle. Upon his arrival to Ireland, knightly Tristan slays a dragon wreaking havoc, is once again healed by Iseult’s hands, and a connection between the two further blossoms. Fated to love each other for all of eternity but bound by honor and duty, upon her arrival to Cornwall, Iseult goes through with her marriage to King Mark. Suspense and intrigue ensue as they keep their passion secret, but the King grows suspicious and tries to prove their guilt which leads to Tristan fleeing Cornwall. Tristan marries another, fittingly named Iseult, but known as Iseult of the White Hands, and herself knowledgeable of healing. As time passes, Tristan is once again gravely injured in battle and is in desperate need of medical attention. With his wife unable to heal his wounds, he seeks out his beloved Iseult to sail to him and remedy him. If she agrees to come to Tristan’s aid, the ship he sent will boast white sails and black sails if she refuses. His jealous wife hears of the instructions and as the ship carrying Iseult of Cornwall approached, Tristan askes his wife to look to see the color of the sails. She lies, saying they are black. Upon hearing this news, Tristan dies of grief. Shortly afterward, Iseult of Cornwall rushes in to meet him, but seeing that she is too late, and due to her grief, dies there beside him.
DALÍ, Salvador, 1904-1989 Tristan et Iseult: Sous le pin parasol, 1970 Drypoint in colors on BFK Rives paper Signed and annotated “Epreuve de notre collection” in pencil
From the complete set of 21 drypoints in colors with full margins. A rare proof set without text, once in the collection of the publisher. Total tirage of 587. Published by Ateliers Rigal, Paris. Also signed by Denise Rigal in pencil on the reverse. Provenance: Ateliers Rigal, Paris Field 70-10I; Michler & Löpsinger 414 17 7/8 x 12 ¾ in. Framed dimensions: 32 ¼ x 25 ¾ in. 914266